Crusading was one of medieval Europe’s favorite pastimes, it wouldn’t take much for a pope to issue a call to crusade and soon king’s princes and lords would be marching an army to either retake the holy land or generally just make life difficult for the Islamic powers on the other side of the Mediterranean, Yet as you’ll know one day the crusade stopped but why did the era of crusading come to an end now?
When most people discuss crusading it’s often about those in the middle east, but it’s important to remember that there were several against pagans in northern and eastern Europe furthermore there were those in the Iberian peninsula and also ones which were directed against the heretical movements throughout Europe in the 13th 14th and 15th centuries those in the Iberian peninsula stopped because simply the Christians won and all of the Muslim states there were extinguished by for the crusades in the middle east those came to an end in the late 13th century for several more complicated reasons.
The first was that the crusaders kept losing and you can only keep trying the same thing so many times before it just seemed silly, another reason was that the primary region of the crusades had now moved to North Africa and much of their focus was on trade and piracy they were now much smaller in scale and were primarily done in a kingdom’s interest, not for religious seal.
Furthermore many were now undertaken without the consent of the pope which leads to one of the main reasons that these former crusades came to an end the papacy’s power began to decline and everyone started to ignore them, this was due to several factors, first, there were numerous schisms and are such numerous popes who had different rulers acknowledged them, this meant the crusading became much riskier since previously going on a crusade meant that the pope would excommunicate anyone who invaded you during that time and if you rejected the pope who sanctioned the crusade you could just wait until your rival’s army left for the holy land.
The second reason for the decline of the papacy was the Protestant reformation, which meant that many places were permanently outside the pope’s sphere of influence and many of those that remained had to deal with internal religious conflicts. Sort of, but no, there were still major wars involving many Christian states that took place under the direction of the pope, although not via papal bulls, most of those issued at this time were ignored.
The most notable of these religious wars were those of the Holy League against the Ottoman Empire. Constantinople but to slow down and eventually stop Ottoman expansion in the Mediterranean and Europe it did not work immediately but it did not take long for the Ottoman Empire to begin its long terminal decline and European nations soon operated in terms of independent national foreign policy and not in the sense of a united Christian world trying to recover important religious cities.
It was national self-interest that directed foreign wars after that, and this continued until the British took Jerusalem in World War I, who very quickly dismissed any religious connotations of the conquest because the idea of a Christian religious war was then completely bizarre.